|Chemical Properties||1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a colorless, viscous liquid derived from
butane by placement of alcohol groups at each end of its molecular
chain and is one of four stable isomers of butanediol.the hydroxyl
function of each end group of the Butanediol reacts with different
mono- and bifunctional reagents: for example with dicarboxylic
acids to polyesters, with diisocyanates to polyurethanes, or with
phosgene to polycarbonates. 1.4-Butanediol (BDO) is a high-quality
intermediate. BDO and its derivatives are widely used for producing
plastics, solvents, electronic chemicals and elastic fibers.
Additionally BDO is also a building block for the synthesis of
polyesterpolyols and polyetherpolyols. BASF is the most significant
producer of 1,4-Butanediol and its derivatives worldwide.|
- Butanediol and its derivatives is used in a broad spectrum of
applications in the chemical industry; amongst others in the
manufacturing of technical plastics, polyurethanes, solvents,
electronic chemicals and elastic fibres.
- 1,4-Butanediol is used in the synthesis of epothilones, a new class
of cancer drugs. Also used in the stereoselective synthesis of
- 1,4-Butanediol's largest use is within tetrahydrofuran (THF)
production, used to make polytetramethylene ether glycol, which
goes mainly into spandex fibers, urethane elastomers, and
- It is commonly used as a solvent in the chemical industry to
manufacture gamma-butyrolactone and elastic fibers like spandex.
- It is used as a cross-linking agent for thermoplastic urethanes,
polyester plasticizers, paints and coatings.
- It undergoes dehydration in the presence of phosphoric acid yielded
teterahydrofuran, which is an important solvent used for various
- It acts an intermediate and is used to manufacture
polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG), polybutylene terephthalate
(PBT) and polyurethane (PU).
- It finds application as an industrial cleaner and a glue remover.
- 1,4-butanediol is also used as a plasticiser (e.g. in polyesters
and cellulosics), as a carrier solvent in printing ink, a cleaning
agent, an adhesive (in leather, plastics, polyester laminates and
polyurethane footwear), in agricultural and veterinary chemicals
and in coatings (in paints, varnishes and films).
|Uses||butylene glycol is a solvent with good antimicrobial action. It
enhances the preservative activity of parabens. Butylene glycol
also serves as a humectant and viscosity controller, and to mask
|Uses||1,4-Butanediol is used to produce polybutyleneterephthalate, a
thermoplastic polyester;and in making tetrahydrofuran,
butyrolactones,and polymeric plasticizers.|
|Production Methods||Methods of manufacturing:|
The most prevalent 1,4-BD production route worldwide is BASF's
Reppe process, which reacts acetylene and formaldehyde. Acetylene
reacts with two equivalents of formaldehyde to form 1,4-butynediol,
also known as but-2-yne- 1,4-diol. Hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol
gives 1,4-butanediol. 1,4-BD is also made on a large industrial
scale by continuous hydrogenation of the 2-butyne- 1,4-diol over
modified nickel catalysts. The one-stage flow process is carried
out at 80 - 160 deg C and 300 bar.
Mitsubishi uses a three-step process:
(1) the catalytic reaction of butadiene and acetic acid yields
(2) subsequent hydrogenation gives 1,4-diacetoxybutane; and
(3) hydrolysis leads to 1,4-butanediol.
|General Description||Odorless colorless liquid or solid (depending upon temperature).|
|Air & Water Reactions||Highly flammable. 1,4-Butanediol is hygroscopic. Water soluble.|
|Reactivity Profile||1,4-Butanediol is heat and light sensitive. 1,4-Butanediol reacts
with acid chlorides, acid anhydrides and chloroformates; reacts
with oxidizing agents and reducing agents. 1,4-Butanediol is
incompatible with isocyanates and acids; also incompatible with
peroxides, perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, hypochlorous acid,
nitric acid, caustics, acetaldehyde, nitrogen peroxide and
|Hazard||Toxic by ingestion.|
|Health Hazard||The acute toxic effects are mild. 1,4-Butanediolis less toxic than
its unsaturate analogs,butenediol and the butynediol. The oralLD50
value in white rats and guinea pigsis ~2 mL/kg. The toxic symptoms
fromingestion may include excitement, depressionof the central
nervous system, nausea, anddrowsiness.|
|Health Hazard||Ingestion of large amounts needed to produce any symptoms.|
|Fire Hazard||Nonflammable liquid, flash point (open cup) 121°C.|
|Safety Profile||A human poison by an unspecified route. Moderately toxic
byingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects:
altered sleep time. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. To
fight fire, use alcohol foam, mist, foam, CO2, dry chemical.
Incompatible with oxidizing materials. When heated to decomposition
it emits acrid smoke and fumes.|
|Purification Methods||Distil the glycol and store it over Linde type 4A molecular sieves,
or crystallise it twice from anhydrous diethyl ether/acetone, and
redistil it. It has been recrystallised from the melt and doubly
distilled in vacuo in the presence of Na2SO4. [Beilstein 1 IV